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History of Jakarta

Jakarta started out as a small port on the estuary of Ciliwung River around 500 years ago. As the centuries passed the port city grew into a buzzing international trade center. Early knowledge on Jakarta has been uncovered, though in bits and pieces, through the many stone tablets that had been discovered in and around the port. Information on Jakarta up until the arrival of European explorers is few at best.

Accounts of 16th century European writers make mention of a city called Kalapa, which apparently served as the primary port of a Hindu kingdom called Sunda, which had its capital at Pajajaran, and was situated approximately 40 kilometers inland, nearby where Bogor nowadays is. The Portuguese where the first large European party to have had made it to the port of Kalapa. The city was later besieged by a young man named Fatahillah, who hailed from a kingdom nearby Kalapa. Fatahillah renamed Sunda Kalapa Jayakarta on 22 June 1527. It’s this date that is commemorated as Jakarta’s anniversary. The Dutch arrived by the end of the 16th Century and took control over Jayakarta.

1200px-Ville_de_Batavia_c1780

Batavia, capital of the Dutch East Indies in what is now North Jakarta, circa 1780
credit Wikipedia

Jayakarta was subsequently renamed Batavia. Batavia’s swampy environment was similar to that of the Netherlands, their homeland. They proceeded to build canals in order to protect Batavia against potential floods. The city’s civic center was situated at a field located about 500 meters away from the port. The Dutch built a graceful city hall as Batavia’s seat of government. As time went by, the city of Batavia grew towards the south. Rapid growth brought about accelerated environmental degradation, which forced the Dutch rulers to relocate their governance activities to higher grounds. This area was named Weltevreden. University students in Batavia promoted Indonesian nationalism at the start of the 20th century.

A historical decision came to be in 1928, namely the Youth Pledge, which set forth three ideals, namely one motherland, one nation, and one language of unity: Indonesia. During Japanese occupation (1942-1945), Batavia was renamed Jakarta. On 17 August 1945, Ir. Soekarno proclaimed Indonesia’s independence and Indonesia’s Heirloom and Venerated Bicolor was hoisted for the very first time.Indonesia’s sovereignty was officially acknowledged in 1949. On that very year, Indonesia also became a member of the United Nations (UN). In 1966, Jakarta was granted its official title of Capital of the Republic of Indonesia. It promoted the rate of development of government office buildings and embassies of friendly countries. Rapid development created the need for a master plan in order to regulate Jakarta’s growth. Since 1966, Jakarta has steadily grown into a modern metropolis. Cultural wealth along with dynamic growth had key contributions towards Jakarta’s transformation into a noted metropolis in the 21st century.

  • Was named Sunda Kelapa in the 14th century and was, at the time, a port of the Pajajaran Kingdom.
  • Was renamed Jayakarta on 22 June 1527 by Fatahillah (this date has been set as Jakarta’s anniversary by virtue of temporary city council decree No. 6/D/K/1956).
  • Had for the very first time, under Dutch rule, a city government called Stad Batavia on 4 March 1621.
  • Was renamed ‘Gemeente Batavia’ on 1 April 1905.
  • Was renamed Stad Gemeente Batavia on 8 January 1935.
  • Was renamed, by the Japanese, Jakarta Toko Betsu Shi on 8 August 1942.
  • The Jakarta city government was named the National Government of Jakarta City in September 1945.
  • Was renamed Stad Gemeente Batavia on 20 February 1950 during the Pre-federal Government period.
  • Was renamed Kota Praj’a Jakarta on 24 March 1950.
  • Jakarta, as an autonomous region, was renamed Municipality of Greater Djakarta on 18 January 1958.
  • Government of the Greater Jakarta Capital City Government was formed by virtue of Government Regulation No. 2 of 1961 in conjunction with Law No. 2 PNPS 1961.
  • On 31 August 1964, Greater Jakarta Capital City was declared, by virtue of Law No. 10 of 1964, to remain the State Capital of the Republic of Indonesia by the name of Jakarta.
  • In 1999, by virtue of Law No. 34 of 1999 concerning Jakarta Capital City Government as capital of the Republic of Indonesia, the nomenclature ‘regional government’ was changed into Jakarta Capital City Government, with autonomy remaining at province level as opposed to the city, and Jakarta Capital City Government was divided into six parts (5 municipalities and the Thousand Islands district).

 

source:

http://www.jakarta.go.id/eng/news/2011/03/history-of-jakarta


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